Pre_GI Gene

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Host: NC_009089 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_009089:4177117 Clostridium difficile 630, complete genome

Host Lineage: Peptoclostridium difficile; Peptoclostridium; Peptostreptococcaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: This strain is the epidemic type X variant that has been extensively studied in research and clinical laboratories. It produces both toxin A, and B. Causative agent of pseudomembranous colitis. This genus comprises about 150 metabolically diverse species of anaerobes that are ubiquitous in virtually all anoxic habitats where organic compounds are present, including soils, aquatic sediments and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. This shape is attributed to the presence of endospores that develop under conditions unfavorable for vegetative growth and distend single cells terminally or sub-terminally. Spores germinate under conditions favorable for vegetative growth, such as anaerobiosis and presence of organic substrates. It is believed that present day Mollicutes (Eubacteria) have evolved regressively (i.e., by genome reduction) from gram-positive clostridia-like ancestors with a low GC content in DNA. Some species are capable of producing organic solvents (acetone, ethanol, etc,), molecular hydrogen and other useful compounds. This species is now recognized as the major causative agent of pseudomembranous colitis (inflammation of the colon) and diarrhea that may occur following antibiotic treatment. This bacterium causes a wide spectrum of disease, ranging from mild, self-limiting diarrhea to serious diarrhea and, in some cases, complications such as pseudomembrane formation, toxic megacolon (dilation of the colon) and peritonitis, which often lead to lethality among patients. The bacteria produce high molecular mass polypeptide cytotoxins, A and B. Some strains produce only one of the toxins, others produce both. Toxin A causes inflammatory reaction involving hypersecretion of fluid and hemorrhagic necrosis through triggering cytokine release by neutrophils. Alteration of intestinal microbial balance with antibiotic therapy and increased exposure to the bacterium in a hospital setting allows C. difficile to colonize susceptible individuals. Moreover, it has been shown that subinhibitory concentrations of antibiotics promote increased toxin production by C. difficile.

StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
417711741782711155methionine gamma-lyaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
41788314179400570putative resolvaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
41796034179830228hypothetical proteinBLASTP
41800494180792744hypothetical proteinBLASTP
41809604181832873hypothetical proteinBLASTP
41818324182497666putative pseudouridylate synthaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
41825184183375858MerR-family transcriptional regulatorQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
418353141860772547putative ABC transporter permease proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
41860774186763687ABC transporter ATP-binding proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
41868464187835990two-component sensor histidine kinaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
41878224188508687two-component response regulatorQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
418900841922143207carbamoyl-phosphate synthasepyrimidine-specific large chainQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
419240741934561050carbamoyl-phosphate synthasepyrimidine-specific small chainQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
419371441969203207carbamoyl-phosphate synthasepyrimidine-specific large chainQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
419697341980161044carbamoyl-phosphate synthasepyrimidine-specific small chainQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
41980424198758717orotidine 5-phosphate decarboxylaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
41991344199721588hypothetical proteinBLASTP
41997934200707915hypothetical proteinBLASTP