Pre_GI Gene

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Host: NC_009089 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_009089:4140764 Clostridium difficile 630, complete genome

Host Lineage: Peptoclostridium difficile; Peptoclostridium; Peptostreptococcaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: This strain is the epidemic type X variant that has been extensively studied in research and clinical laboratories. It produces both toxin A, and B. Causative agent of pseudomembranous colitis. This genus comprises about 150 metabolically diverse species of anaerobes that are ubiquitous in virtually all anoxic habitats where organic compounds are present, including soils, aquatic sediments and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. This shape is attributed to the presence of endospores that develop under conditions unfavorable for vegetative growth and distend single cells terminally or sub-terminally. Spores germinate under conditions favorable for vegetative growth, such as anaerobiosis and presence of organic substrates. It is believed that present day Mollicutes (Eubacteria) have evolved regressively (i.e., by genome reduction) from gram-positive clostridia-like ancestors with a low GC content in DNA. Some species are capable of producing organic solvents (acetone, ethanol, etc,), molecular hydrogen and other useful compounds. This species is now recognized as the major causative agent of pseudomembranous colitis (inflammation of the colon) and diarrhea that may occur following antibiotic treatment. This bacterium causes a wide spectrum of disease, ranging from mild, self-limiting diarrhea to serious diarrhea and, in some cases, complications such as pseudomembrane formation, toxic megacolon (dilation of the colon) and peritonitis, which often lead to lethality among patients. The bacteria produce high molecular mass polypeptide cytotoxins, A and B. Some strains produce only one of the toxins, others produce both. Toxin A causes inflammatory reaction involving hypersecretion of fluid and hemorrhagic necrosis through triggering cytokine release by neutrophils. Alteration of intestinal microbial balance with antibiotic therapy and increased exposure to the bacterium in a hospital setting allows C. difficile to colonize susceptible individuals. Moreover, it has been shown that subinhibitory concentrations of antibiotics promote increased toxin production by C. difficile.

This island contains ribosomal proteins or RNA related elements and may indicate a False Positive Prediction!

StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
41407644141597834putative corrinporphyrin methyltransferaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
41415984142344747hypothetical proteinBLASTP
41424224143315894putative signal peptidase IIQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
41433124144247936putative DNA polymerase III delta subunitQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
41442504144939690putative thymidylate kinaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
414507041464791410putative arginine decarboxylaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
41466344146825192hypothetical proteinBLASTP
414694541470611175S ribosomal RNAQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
41471344150086295323S ribosomal RNAQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
41503684151992162516S ribosomal RNAQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
41521874152468282hypothetical proteinBLASTP
415269041542191530lysyl-tRNA synthetaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
41542344154713480transcription elongation factorQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
41548224155790969tRNA-dihydrouridine synthaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
41559274156697771hypothetical proteinBLASTP
41567164157306591hypothetical proteinBLASTP
41574904158458969putative peptidaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
41584514159428978BirA bifunctional protein includes biotin operon repressor and biotin--acetyl-CoA-carboxylase synthetaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
415974341617371995cell division proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
416174741631351389putative ATPaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP