Pre_GI Gene

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Host: NC_009089 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_009089:3998347 Clostridium difficile 630, complete genome

Host Lineage: Peptoclostridium difficile; Peptoclostridium; Peptostreptococcaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: This strain is the epidemic type X variant that has been extensively studied in research and clinical laboratories. It produces both toxin A, and B. Causative agent of pseudomembranous colitis. This genus comprises about 150 metabolically diverse species of anaerobes that are ubiquitous in virtually all anoxic habitats where organic compounds are present, including soils, aquatic sediments and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. This shape is attributed to the presence of endospores that develop under conditions unfavorable for vegetative growth and distend single cells terminally or sub-terminally. Spores germinate under conditions favorable for vegetative growth, such as anaerobiosis and presence of organic substrates. It is believed that present day Mollicutes (Eubacteria) have evolved regressively (i.e., by genome reduction) from gram-positive clostridia-like ancestors with a low GC content in DNA. Some species are capable of producing organic solvents (acetone, ethanol, etc,), molecular hydrogen and other useful compounds. This species is now recognized as the major causative agent of pseudomembranous colitis (inflammation of the colon) and diarrhea that may occur following antibiotic treatment. This bacterium causes a wide spectrum of disease, ranging from mild, self-limiting diarrhea to serious diarrhea and, in some cases, complications such as pseudomembrane formation, toxic megacolon (dilation of the colon) and peritonitis, which often lead to lethality among patients. The bacteria produce high molecular mass polypeptide cytotoxins, A and B. Some strains produce only one of the toxins, others produce both. Toxin A causes inflammatory reaction involving hypersecretion of fluid and hemorrhagic necrosis through triggering cytokine release by neutrophils. Alteration of intestinal microbial balance with antibiotic therapy and increased exposure to the bacterium in a hospital setting allows C. difficile to colonize susceptible individuals. Moreover, it has been shown that subinhibitory concentrations of antibiotics promote increased toxin production by C. difficile.

This island contains ribosomal proteins or RNA related elements and may indicate a False Positive Prediction!

StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
399834739996091263putative nucleotide pyrophosphataseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
399967240009821311ABC transporter solute-binding proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
40010074001867861ABC transporter permease proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
40019114002780870ABC transporter permease proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
400276440038341071ABC transporter ATP-binding proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
400428940044051175S ribosomal RNAQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
40044784007431295423S ribosomal RNAQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
40076634009286162416S ribosomal RNAQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
40093894009967579putative siroheme synthaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
40101204011091972delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydrataseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
401110240126101509porphyrin biosynthesis proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
40125914013496906porphobilinogen deaminaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
401352640150041479sirohydrochlorin cobaltochelataseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
40150234015775753cobalt-precorrin-6a reductaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
40157724016497726cobalt-precorrin-3b c17-methyltransferaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
401649440176151122putative cobalamin biosynthesis proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
40175994018351753precorrin-4 C11-methyltransferaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
40183444018919576probable cobalt-precorrin-6y C15-methyltransferaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
40189094019517609probable cobalt-precorrin-6y C5-methyltransferaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
401951440207401227cobalt-precorrin-6a synthase deacetylatingQuickGO ontologyBLASTP