Pre_GI Gene

Some Help

Host: NC_009089 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_009089:3935500 Clostridium difficile 630, complete genome

Host Lineage: Peptoclostridium difficile; Peptoclostridium; Peptostreptococcaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: This strain is the epidemic type X variant that has been extensively studied in research and clinical laboratories. It produces both toxin A, and B. Causative agent of pseudomembranous colitis. This genus comprises about 150 metabolically diverse species of anaerobes that are ubiquitous in virtually all anoxic habitats where organic compounds are present, including soils, aquatic sediments and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. This shape is attributed to the presence of endospores that develop under conditions unfavorable for vegetative growth and distend single cells terminally or sub-terminally. Spores germinate under conditions favorable for vegetative growth, such as anaerobiosis and presence of organic substrates. It is believed that present day Mollicutes (Eubacteria) have evolved regressively (i.e., by genome reduction) from gram-positive clostridia-like ancestors with a low GC content in DNA. Some species are capable of producing organic solvents (acetone, ethanol, etc,), molecular hydrogen and other useful compounds. This species is now recognized as the major causative agent of pseudomembranous colitis (inflammation of the colon) and diarrhea that may occur following antibiotic treatment. This bacterium causes a wide spectrum of disease, ranging from mild, self-limiting diarrhea to serious diarrhea and, in some cases, complications such as pseudomembrane formation, toxic megacolon (dilation of the colon) and peritonitis, which often lead to lethality among patients. The bacteria produce high molecular mass polypeptide cytotoxins, A and B. Some strains produce only one of the toxins, others produce both. Toxin A causes inflammatory reaction involving hypersecretion of fluid and hemorrhagic necrosis through triggering cytokine release by neutrophils. Alteration of intestinal microbial balance with antibiotic therapy and increased exposure to the bacterium in a hospital setting allows C. difficile to colonize susceptible individuals. Moreover, it has been shown that subinhibitory concentrations of antibiotics promote increased toxin production by C. difficile.

This island contains ribosomal proteins or RNA related elements and may indicate a False Positive Prediction!

StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
39369753937613639hypothetical protein
393810239398621761putative conjugative transposon recombinaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
39403873940626240putative conjugative transposon excisionaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
39406313941047417conjugative transposon proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
39410443941403360hypothetical protein
394257439453392766magnesium transporting ATPase P-typeQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
39455053945816312hypothetical proteinBLASTP
39458323946062231hypothetical protein
39460633946749687Magnesium transporting ATPase protein CQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
39468783947384507putative transcriptional regulatorQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
394739739500602664magnesium transporting ATPase P-type 1QuickGO ontologyBLASTP
39501533950362210hypothetical protein
39508453951756912conjugative transposon proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
395176439527711008putative cell wall hydrolaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
395496939574192451conjugative transposon proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
39573973957795399conjugative transposon membrane proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
39579133958416504conjugative transposon proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
39584343958937504conjugative transposon proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
39592353960044810conjugative transposon hypothetical proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
39600833960304222conjugative transposon proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
396045139616411191putative conjugative transposon replication initiation factorQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
396182539632191395putative conjugative transposon FtsK_SpoIIIE-related proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
39632363963619384conjugative transposon proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
39636353963961327conjugative transposon proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
39639933964187195hypothetical proteinBLASTP
396420039672443045putative collagen-binding surface proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
396748739688511365putative RNA methyltransferaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
396902639707861761pyruvate kinaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
397083839717979606-phosphofructokinaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
397200639755753570DNA polymerase III alpha subunitQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
39757323976688957hypothetical proteinBLASTP
39766963977121426putative DNA repair protein nucleotide pyrophosphataseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
397719039783081119hypothetical proteinBLASTP
39783083979165858putative ATP-binding proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP