Pre_GI Gene

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Host: NC_009089 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_009089:3889811 Clostridium difficile 630, complete genome

Host Lineage: Peptoclostridium difficile; Peptoclostridium; Peptostreptococcaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: This strain is the epidemic type X variant that has been extensively studied in research and clinical laboratories. It produces both toxin A, and B. Causative agent of pseudomembranous colitis. This genus comprises about 150 metabolically diverse species of anaerobes that are ubiquitous in virtually all anoxic habitats where organic compounds are present, including soils, aquatic sediments and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. This shape is attributed to the presence of endospores that develop under conditions unfavorable for vegetative growth and distend single cells terminally or sub-terminally. Spores germinate under conditions favorable for vegetative growth, such as anaerobiosis and presence of organic substrates. It is believed that present day Mollicutes (Eubacteria) have evolved regressively (i.e., by genome reduction) from gram-positive clostridia-like ancestors with a low GC content in DNA. Some species are capable of producing organic solvents (acetone, ethanol, etc,), molecular hydrogen and other useful compounds. This species is now recognized as the major causative agent of pseudomembranous colitis (inflammation of the colon) and diarrhea that may occur following antibiotic treatment. This bacterium causes a wide spectrum of disease, ranging from mild, self-limiting diarrhea to serious diarrhea and, in some cases, complications such as pseudomembrane formation, toxic megacolon (dilation of the colon) and peritonitis, which often lead to lethality among patients. The bacteria produce high molecular mass polypeptide cytotoxins, A and B. Some strains produce only one of the toxins, others produce both. Toxin A causes inflammatory reaction involving hypersecretion of fluid and hemorrhagic necrosis through triggering cytokine release by neutrophils. Alteration of intestinal microbial balance with antibiotic therapy and increased exposure to the bacterium in a hospital setting allows C. difficile to colonize susceptible individuals. Moreover, it has been shown that subinhibitory concentrations of antibiotics promote increased toxin production by C. difficile.

StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
38898113890572762hypothetical proteinBLASTP
389092538921091185integraseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
38921463892340195conjugative transposon conserved hypothetical proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
38929143893153240congative transposon conserved hypothetical proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
38931503893572423conjugative transposon conserved hypothetical proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
38941703894526357putative transposon-related DNA-binding proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
38945593895254696hypothetical proteinBLASTP
38954283896003576TetR-family transcriptional regulatorQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
38960153896260246hypothetical proteinBLASTP
38964763896733258hypothetical proteinBLASTP
38967303897200471hypothetical protein
38975023898410909conjugative tyransposon conserved hypothetical proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
389842738994311005putative cell wall hydrolaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
389942839018092382conjugative transposon membrane proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
390180639042592454conjugative transposon conserved hypothetical proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
39042433904635393conjugative transposon membrane proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
39047253905222498putative conjugative transposon antirestriction proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
39058063906312507putative phage membrane proteinQuickGO ontology
39064983906719222conjugative transposon conserved hypothetical proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
39067713907751981putative conjugative transposon replication initiation factorQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
390814639095431398conjugative transposon-related FtsKSpoIII-relatd proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
39095793909956378conjugative transposon conserved hypothetical proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
39099783910292315conjugative transposon conserved hypothetical proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
39105493911223675hypothetical protein
39112243912117894hypothetical proteinBLASTP
391231639143011986putative exosporium glycoproteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
391436839154441077putative glycosyl transferaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
39157563916340585ATP-dependent Clp protease proteolytic subunitQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
39163373916819483AraC-family transcriptional regulatorQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
391701839184331416GntR-family transcriptional regulatorQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
39185483919216669hypothetical proteinBLASTP
39193933919911519putative nitroreductaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
39200633920386324putative transcriptional regulatorQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
39203913920975585putative proteaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
39210243921485462AsnC-family transcriptional regulatorQuickGO ontologyBLASTP