Pre_GI Gene

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Host: NC_009089 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_009089:3782000 Clostridium difficile 630, complete genome

Host Lineage: Peptoclostridium difficile; Peptoclostridium; Peptostreptococcaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: This strain is the epidemic type X variant that has been extensively studied in research and clinical laboratories. It produces both toxin A, and B. Causative agent of pseudomembranous colitis. This genus comprises about 150 metabolically diverse species of anaerobes that are ubiquitous in virtually all anoxic habitats where organic compounds are present, including soils, aquatic sediments and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. This shape is attributed to the presence of endospores that develop under conditions unfavorable for vegetative growth and distend single cells terminally or sub-terminally. Spores germinate under conditions favorable for vegetative growth, such as anaerobiosis and presence of organic substrates. It is believed that present day Mollicutes (Eubacteria) have evolved regressively (i.e., by genome reduction) from gram-positive clostridia-like ancestors with a low GC content in DNA. Some species are capable of producing organic solvents (acetone, ethanol, etc,), molecular hydrogen and other useful compounds. This species is now recognized as the major causative agent of pseudomembranous colitis (inflammation of the colon) and diarrhea that may occur following antibiotic treatment. This bacterium causes a wide spectrum of disease, ranging from mild, self-limiting diarrhea to serious diarrhea and, in some cases, complications such as pseudomembrane formation, toxic megacolon (dilation of the colon) and peritonitis, which often lead to lethality among patients. The bacteria produce high molecular mass polypeptide cytotoxins, A and B. Some strains produce only one of the toxins, others produce both. Toxin A causes inflammatory reaction involving hypersecretion of fluid and hemorrhagic necrosis through triggering cytokine release by neutrophils. Alteration of intestinal microbial balance with antibiotic therapy and increased exposure to the bacterium in a hospital setting allows C. difficile to colonize susceptible individuals. Moreover, it has been shown that subinhibitory concentrations of antibiotics promote increased toxin production by C. difficile.

StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
37822053782744540hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
378307237843551284hypothetical proteinBLASTP
378480437865791776putative sigma-54 interacting proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
37867913787360570hypothetical proteinBLASTP
37875443788179636single-stranded DNA binding proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
37888473789728882hypothetical proteinBLASTP
378984837908551008putative proline racemaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
37908753791357483hypothetical proteinBLASTP
37913753791842468hypothetical proteinBLASTP
37918573792624768hypothetical proteinBLASTP
37926953793420726proline reductaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
37934583793742285hypothetical proteinBLASTP
379382337957031881proline reductase subunit proproteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
379613237978921761sigma-54-dependent transcriptional activatorQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
379829938005182220putative surface proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
380155238028651314putative electron transfer proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
38032543804018765probable polysaccharide deacetylaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP