Pre_GI Gene

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Host: NC_009089 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_009089:370555 Clostridium difficile 630, complete genome

Host Lineage: Peptoclostridium difficile; Peptoclostridium; Peptostreptococcaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: This strain is the epidemic type X variant that has been extensively studied in research and clinical laboratories. It produces both toxin A, and B. Causative agent of pseudomembranous colitis. This genus comprises about 150 metabolically diverse species of anaerobes that are ubiquitous in virtually all anoxic habitats where organic compounds are present, including soils, aquatic sediments and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. This shape is attributed to the presence of endospores that develop under conditions unfavorable for vegetative growth and distend single cells terminally or sub-terminally. Spores germinate under conditions favorable for vegetative growth, such as anaerobiosis and presence of organic substrates. It is believed that present day Mollicutes (Eubacteria) have evolved regressively (i.e., by genome reduction) from gram-positive clostridia-like ancestors with a low GC content in DNA. Some species are capable of producing organic solvents (acetone, ethanol, etc,), molecular hydrogen and other useful compounds. This species is now recognized as the major causative agent of pseudomembranous colitis (inflammation of the colon) and diarrhea that may occur following antibiotic treatment. This bacterium causes a wide spectrum of disease, ranging from mild, self-limiting diarrhea to serious diarrhea and, in some cases, complications such as pseudomembrane formation, toxic megacolon (dilation of the colon) and peritonitis, which often lead to lethality among patients. The bacteria produce high molecular mass polypeptide cytotoxins, A and B. Some strains produce only one of the toxins, others produce both. Toxin A causes inflammatory reaction involving hypersecretion of fluid and hemorrhagic necrosis through triggering cytokine release by neutrophils. Alteration of intestinal microbial balance with antibiotic therapy and increased exposure to the bacterium in a hospital setting allows C. difficile to colonize susceptible individuals. Moreover, it has been shown that subinhibitory concentrations of antibiotics promote increased toxin production by C. difficile.

This island contains ribosomal proteins or RNA related elements and may indicate a False Positive Prediction!

StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
370555371283729putative phosphoserine phosphataseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
3714083724961089hypothetical proteinBLASTP
372933373781849hypothetical proteinBLASTP
373980374345366ArsR-family transcriptional regulatorQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
3743683767552388putative heavy-metal-transporting ATPaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
377250378874162516S ribosomal RNAQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
379067382019295323S ribosomal RNAQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
3820923822081175S ribosomal RNAQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
382386382994609hypothetical proteinBLASTP
383016383228213hypothetical proteinBLASTP
383535384308774putative ABC transporter permease proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
384319385056738putative ABC transporter permease proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
385049385972924ABC transporter ATP-binding proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
386129387052924two-component sensor histidine kinaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
387054387755702two-component response regulatorQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
387748387936189hypothetical proteinBLASTP
388188389093906hypothetical proteinBLASTP
3891073908791773hypothetical proteinBLASTP
391385392137753putative cobalt transport proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
392127392411285cobalt transport proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
392414393112699cobalt transport proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
393102393923822cobalt ABC transporter ATP-binding proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP