Pre_GI Gene

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Host: NC_009089 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_009089:3142976 Clostridium difficile 630, complete genome

Host Lineage: Peptoclostridium difficile; Peptoclostridium; Peptostreptococcaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: This strain is the epidemic type X variant that has been extensively studied in research and clinical laboratories. It produces both toxin A, and B. Causative agent of pseudomembranous colitis. This genus comprises about 150 metabolically diverse species of anaerobes that are ubiquitous in virtually all anoxic habitats where organic compounds are present, including soils, aquatic sediments and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. This shape is attributed to the presence of endospores that develop under conditions unfavorable for vegetative growth and distend single cells terminally or sub-terminally. Spores germinate under conditions favorable for vegetative growth, such as anaerobiosis and presence of organic substrates. It is believed that present day Mollicutes (Eubacteria) have evolved regressively (i.e., by genome reduction) from gram-positive clostridia-like ancestors with a low GC content in DNA. Some species are capable of producing organic solvents (acetone, ethanol, etc,), molecular hydrogen and other useful compounds. This species is now recognized as the major causative agent of pseudomembranous colitis (inflammation of the colon) and diarrhea that may occur following antibiotic treatment. This bacterium causes a wide spectrum of disease, ranging from mild, self-limiting diarrhea to serious diarrhea and, in some cases, complications such as pseudomembrane formation, toxic megacolon (dilation of the colon) and peritonitis, which often lead to lethality among patients. The bacteria produce high molecular mass polypeptide cytotoxins, A and B. Some strains produce only one of the toxins, others produce both. Toxin A causes inflammatory reaction involving hypersecretion of fluid and hemorrhagic necrosis through triggering cytokine release by neutrophils. Alteration of intestinal microbial balance with antibiotic therapy and increased exposure to the bacterium in a hospital setting allows C. difficile to colonize susceptible individuals. Moreover, it has been shown that subinhibitory concentrations of antibiotics promote increased toxin production by C. difficile.

This island contains ribosomal proteins or RNA related elements and may indicate a False Positive Prediction!

StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
31426663142986321hypothetical proteinBLASTP
314297631449671992hypothetical proteinBLASTP
314509031476332544putative surface proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
31483773149054678putative sortase BQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
3149218314928972tRNA-ThrQuickGO ontology
31493303152282295323S ribosomal RNAQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
31525373154161162516S ribosomal RNAQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
31544473155385939polysaccharide deacetylaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
315575731571301374hypothetical proteinBLASTP
315735931586811323two-component sensor histidine kinaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
31586743159378705two-component response regulatorQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
315956131606251065hypothetical proteinBLASTP
31606283161326699probable polysaccharide deacetylaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
316131731624141098putative UDP-N-acetylglucosamine--N-acetylmuramyl-pentapeptide pyrophosphoryl-undecaprenol N-acetylglucosamine transferaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
316273731639811245putative serine hydroxymethyltransferaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
31643093165097789hypothetical proteinBLASTP
31650973165570474hypothetical proteinBLASTP