Pre_GI Gene

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Host: NC_009089 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_009089:1329826 Clostridium difficile 630, complete genome

Host Lineage: Peptoclostridium difficile; Peptoclostridium; Peptostreptococcaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: This strain is the epidemic type X variant that has been extensively studied in research and clinical laboratories. It produces both toxin A, and B. Causative agent of pseudomembranous colitis. This genus comprises about 150 metabolically diverse species of anaerobes that are ubiquitous in virtually all anoxic habitats where organic compounds are present, including soils, aquatic sediments and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. This shape is attributed to the presence of endospores that develop under conditions unfavorable for vegetative growth and distend single cells terminally or sub-terminally. Spores germinate under conditions favorable for vegetative growth, such as anaerobiosis and presence of organic substrates. It is believed that present day Mollicutes (Eubacteria) have evolved regressively (i.e., by genome reduction) from gram-positive clostridia-like ancestors with a low GC content in DNA. Some species are capable of producing organic solvents (acetone, ethanol, etc,), molecular hydrogen and other useful compounds. This species is now recognized as the major causative agent of pseudomembranous colitis (inflammation of the colon) and diarrhea that may occur following antibiotic treatment. This bacterium causes a wide spectrum of disease, ranging from mild, self-limiting diarrhea to serious diarrhea and, in some cases, complications such as pseudomembrane formation, toxic megacolon (dilation of the colon) and peritonitis, which often lead to lethality among patients. The bacteria produce high molecular mass polypeptide cytotoxins, A and B. Some strains produce only one of the toxins, others produce both. Toxin A causes inflammatory reaction involving hypersecretion of fluid and hemorrhagic necrosis through triggering cytokine release by neutrophils. Alteration of intestinal microbial balance with antibiotic therapy and increased exposure to the bacterium in a hospital setting allows C. difficile to colonize susceptible individuals. Moreover, it has been shown that subinhibitory concentrations of antibiotics promote increased toxin production by C. difficile.


StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
13292311329833603putative dephospho-CoA kinaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
13298261330380555putative transglycosylaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
133038013320951716putative solute-binding lipoproteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
13321681332380213putative heavy-metal binding proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
13325811333180600hypothetical proteinBLASTP
13334081333779372lactoylglutathione lyaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
133389013351851296putative cell wall hydrolaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
13352961336240945hypothetical proteinBLASTP
133645613377931338electron transport complex proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
13378161338793978electron transport complex proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
13387931339362570electron transport complex proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
13393751339968594electron transport complex proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
13399831340558576electron transport complex proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
13405681341545978electron transport complex proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
13415471341651105hypothetical protein
13417651342349585septum formation proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
13423461343053708DNA repair proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
134312313441841062rod shape-determining proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
13441881345087900putative rod shape-determining proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
13451021345590489hypothetical proteinBLASTP
134560213485802979putative penicillin-binding proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
13486781349361684septum site-determining proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
13493851350182798septum site-determining protein cell division inhibitorQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
13502001350484285cell division topological specificity factorQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
135056913516991131rod shape-determining proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
13517401352153414methylglyoxal synthaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP