Pre_GI Gene

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Host: NC_009089 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_009089:1283000 Clostridium difficile 630, complete genome

Host Lineage: Peptoclostridium difficile; Peptoclostridium; Peptostreptococcaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: This strain is the epidemic type X variant that has been extensively studied in research and clinical laboratories. It produces both toxin A, and B. Causative agent of pseudomembranous colitis. This genus comprises about 150 metabolically diverse species of anaerobes that are ubiquitous in virtually all anoxic habitats where organic compounds are present, including soils, aquatic sediments and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. This shape is attributed to the presence of endospores that develop under conditions unfavorable for vegetative growth and distend single cells terminally or sub-terminally. Spores germinate under conditions favorable for vegetative growth, such as anaerobiosis and presence of organic substrates. It is believed that present day Mollicutes (Eubacteria) have evolved regressively (i.e., by genome reduction) from gram-positive clostridia-like ancestors with a low GC content in DNA. Some species are capable of producing organic solvents (acetone, ethanol, etc,), molecular hydrogen and other useful compounds. This species is now recognized as the major causative agent of pseudomembranous colitis (inflammation of the colon) and diarrhea that may occur following antibiotic treatment. This bacterium causes a wide spectrum of disease, ranging from mild, self-limiting diarrhea to serious diarrhea and, in some cases, complications such as pseudomembrane formation, toxic megacolon (dilation of the colon) and peritonitis, which often lead to lethality among patients. The bacteria produce high molecular mass polypeptide cytotoxins, A and B. Some strains produce only one of the toxins, others produce both. Toxin A causes inflammatory reaction involving hypersecretion of fluid and hemorrhagic necrosis through triggering cytokine release by neutrophils. Alteration of intestinal microbial balance with antibiotic therapy and increased exposure to the bacterium in a hospital setting allows C. difficile to colonize susceptible individuals. Moreover, it has been shown that subinhibitory concentrations of antibiotics promote increased toxin production by C. difficile.

StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
12822931283006714two-component response regulatorQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
128450712857001194integraseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
12857801285983204excisionaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
12864051286662258conjugative transposon proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
12866431287083441conjugative transposon proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
12875561288347792putative lantibiotic ABC transporter permease proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
12883351289144810putative lantibiotic ABC transporter permease proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
12891371290063927putative lantibiotic ABC transporterATP-binding proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
12902001291117918two-component sensor histidine kinaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
12911241291816693two-component response regulatorQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
12918091292030222hypothetical proteinBLASTP
12921591292512354putative conjugative transposon proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
12927611293090330putative mobilization proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
129305112944001350putative mobilization proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
12944931294723231hypothetical proteinBLASTP
12947451294924180hypothetical proteinBLASTP
12951071295526420hypothetical proteinBLASTP
12957041296069366hypothetical proteinBLASTP
12960661296272207hypothetical protein
129627513003064032putative DNA primaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
130043913025292091DNA topoisomeraseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
13025461302734189hypothetical proteinBLASTP
13027311303465735hypothetical proteinBLASTP
13034491303706258hypothetical proteinBLASTP
130373813056781941putative DNA-repair proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
13057051306664960modification DNA methylaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
130666113090902430putative conjugal transfer proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
13090381309442405hypothetical proteinBLASTP
13094641310333870hypothetical proteinBLASTP
13103501310565216putative conjugative transfer proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
13106891310808120hypothetical protein
131092513127121788putative conjugal transfer proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
13127091313185477hypothetical proteinBLASTP
13132681313486219hypothetical proteinBLASTP
13135071314481975hypothetical proteinBLASTP
13151711315860690putative lipoproteinQuickGO ontology
131608113184532373glycerol dehydrataseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
13184681319370903glycerol dehydratase activatorQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
13193901319941552putative transcriptional regulatorQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
13201051320977873putative phosphoesteraseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
13211411322121981hypothetical protein
13226221322843222hypothetical protein
13233491324218870nitroreductase-family proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP