Pre_GI Gene

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Host: NC_009089 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_009089:1202261 Clostridium difficile 630, complete genome

Host Lineage: Peptoclostridium difficile; Peptoclostridium; Peptostreptococcaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: This strain is the epidemic type X variant that has been extensively studied in research and clinical laboratories. It produces both toxin A, and B. Causative agent of pseudomembranous colitis. This genus comprises about 150 metabolically diverse species of anaerobes that are ubiquitous in virtually all anoxic habitats where organic compounds are present, including soils, aquatic sediments and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. This shape is attributed to the presence of endospores that develop under conditions unfavorable for vegetative growth and distend single cells terminally or sub-terminally. Spores germinate under conditions favorable for vegetative growth, such as anaerobiosis and presence of organic substrates. It is believed that present day Mollicutes (Eubacteria) have evolved regressively (i.e., by genome reduction) from gram-positive clostridia-like ancestors with a low GC content in DNA. Some species are capable of producing organic solvents (acetone, ethanol, etc,), molecular hydrogen and other useful compounds. This species is now recognized as the major causative agent of pseudomembranous colitis (inflammation of the colon) and diarrhea that may occur following antibiotic treatment. This bacterium causes a wide spectrum of disease, ranging from mild, self-limiting diarrhea to serious diarrhea and, in some cases, complications such as pseudomembrane formation, toxic megacolon (dilation of the colon) and peritonitis, which often lead to lethality among patients. The bacteria produce high molecular mass polypeptide cytotoxins, A and B. Some strains produce only one of the toxins, others produce both. Toxin A causes inflammatory reaction involving hypersecretion of fluid and hemorrhagic necrosis through triggering cytokine release by neutrophils. Alteration of intestinal microbial balance with antibiotic therapy and increased exposure to the bacterium in a hospital setting allows C. difficile to colonize susceptible individuals. Moreover, it has been shown that subinhibitory concentrations of antibiotics promote increased toxin production by C. difficile.

This island contains ribosomal proteins or RNA related elements and may indicate a False Positive Prediction!

StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
120226112035171257putative glycosyl transferaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
120354012056212082putative cell wall anchored proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
120565812067431086hypothetical proteinBLASTP
120679712079211125UDP-N-acetylglucosamine 2-epimeraseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
12079991208973975putative mannosyl-glycoprotein endo-beta-N-acetylglucosamidaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
12091251210748162416S ribosomal RNAQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
12111051214058295423S ribosomal RNAQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
1214096121416671tRNA-GlyQuickGO ontology
121417812142941175S ribosomal RNAQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
121454712165862040cell surface protein putative N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine amidaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
121707012191032034cell surface protein putative N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine amidaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
121934512212581914hypothetical proteinBLASTP
122125112234702220putative helicaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
12235791224409831hypothetical proteinBLASTP
122439912278663468ATP-dependent nuclease subunit BQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
122786612316933828ATP-dependent nuclease subunit AQuickGO ontologyBLASTP