Pre_GI Gene

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Host: NC_009089 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_009089:1093832 Clostridium difficile 630, complete genome

Host Lineage: Peptoclostridium difficile; Peptoclostridium; Peptostreptococcaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: This strain is the epidemic type X variant that has been extensively studied in research and clinical laboratories. It produces both toxin A, and B. Causative agent of pseudomembranous colitis. This genus comprises about 150 metabolically diverse species of anaerobes that are ubiquitous in virtually all anoxic habitats where organic compounds are present, including soils, aquatic sediments and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. This shape is attributed to the presence of endospores that develop under conditions unfavorable for vegetative growth and distend single cells terminally or sub-terminally. Spores germinate under conditions favorable for vegetative growth, such as anaerobiosis and presence of organic substrates. It is believed that present day Mollicutes (Eubacteria) have evolved regressively (i.e., by genome reduction) from gram-positive clostridia-like ancestors with a low GC content in DNA. Some species are capable of producing organic solvents (acetone, ethanol, etc,), molecular hydrogen and other useful compounds. This species is now recognized as the major causative agent of pseudomembranous colitis (inflammation of the colon) and diarrhea that may occur following antibiotic treatment. This bacterium causes a wide spectrum of disease, ranging from mild, self-limiting diarrhea to serious diarrhea and, in some cases, complications such as pseudomembrane formation, toxic megacolon (dilation of the colon) and peritonitis, which often lead to lethality among patients. The bacteria produce high molecular mass polypeptide cytotoxins, A and B. Some strains produce only one of the toxins, others produce both. Toxin A causes inflammatory reaction involving hypersecretion of fluid and hemorrhagic necrosis through triggering cytokine release by neutrophils. Alteration of intestinal microbial balance with antibiotic therapy and increased exposure to the bacterium in a hospital setting allows C. difficile to colonize susceptible individuals. Moreover, it has been shown that subinhibitory concentrations of antibiotics promote increased toxin production by C. difficile.

StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
10938321094164333putative phage regulatory proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
10943261094514189putative phage regulatory proteinQuickGO ontology
10945481095342795phage proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
10954041095604201hypothetical protein
10956431096269627hypothetical protein
10962821096479198putative phage regulatory proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
10964961096825330putative phage DNA-binding proteinQuickGO ontology
10969271097115189hypothetical protein
10971251097343219hypothetical protein
10974421097684243hypothetical proteinBLASTP
10977681098283516phage proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
10982851099187903putative phage recombination proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
10992001100039840phage proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
11001101100364255hypothetical protein
11004381100701264hypothetical protein
11007131101063351hypothetical protein
11010671101447381hypothetical protein
11014311101577147hypothetical protein
11017071101880174hypothetical proteinBLASTP
11019981102333336hypothetical protein
11024331102708276hypothetical protein
110280411038771074putative DNA methylaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
11039571104166210hypothetical protein
11041781105173996phage proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
11051821105907726phage proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
11059041106077174hypothetical protein
11060701106441372hypothetical proteinBLASTP
11064441106911468hypothetical protein
11069901107175186hypothetical protein
11071801107428249hypothetical proteinBLASTP
11074471107560114phage proteinQuickGO ontology
11075571108363807phage modification methylaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
11083771108784408putative phage endonucleaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
11087991109524726putative phage anti-repressorQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
11096181110106489hypothetical proteinBLASTP
11108331111027195hypothetical protein
11110601111638579phage proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
11117151111903189hypothetical protein
11118831112200318phage proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
11123241112551228hypothetical protein
11126211113313693putative phage DNA-binding proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
111330311145441242putative phage terminase large subunitQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
111455011159891440phage portal proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
111597911174721494putative phage minor head proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
11174501117680231hypothetical protein