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Query: NC_017179:3222015 Clostridium difficile BI1, complete genome

Start: 3222015, End: 3241906, Length: 19892

Host Lineage: Peptoclostridium difficile; Peptoclostridium; Peptostreptococcaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: Clostridium difficile BI1 is a human strain isolated in the United States in 1988. This species is now recognized as the major causative agent of pseudomembranous colitis (inflammation of the colon) and diarrhea that may occur following antibiotic treatment. C. difficile infection represents one of the most common nosocomial (originating in a hospital) infections. This bacterium causes a wide spectrum of disease, ranging from mild, self-limiting diarrhea to serious diarrhea and, in some cases, complications such as pseudomembrane formation, toxic megacolon (dilation of the colon) and peritonitis, which often lead to lethality among patients. The bacteria produce high molecular mass polypeptide cytotoxins, A and B. Some strains produce only one of the toxins, others produce both. Toxin A causes inflammatory reaction involving hypersecretion of fluid and hemorrhagic necrosis through triggering cytokine release by neutrophils. Cytotoxin B depolymerizes actin, the major protein of the cytoskeleton, and thus aids in destruction of tissues. The combined action of the toxins results in necrosis of superficial epithelium and edema (fluidic swelling) in affected areas of intestine. Proliferation of C. difficile is normally prevented by normal intestinal microflora, which is believed to inhibit attachment of the bacterium and its toxins to intestinal walls. Alteration of intestinal microbial balance with antibiotic therapy and increased exposure to the bacterium in a hospital setting allows C. difficile to colonize susceptible individuals. Moreover, it has been shown that subinhibitory concentrations of antibiotics promote increased toxin production by C. difficile.

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Islands with an asterisk (*) contain ribosomal proteins or RNA related elements and may indicate a False Positive Prediction!

Subject IslandStartEndLengthSubject Host DescriptionE-valueBit scoreVisual BLASTNVisual BLASTP
NC_010723:27351962735196275388618691Clostridium botulinum E3 str. Alaska E43, complete genome2e-59238BLASTN svgBLASTP svg
NC_010674:29302592930259294957619318Clostridium botulinum B str. Eklund 17B, complete genome2e-59238BLASTN svgBLASTP svg
NC_012563:29791472979147300249023344Clostridium botulinum A2 str. Kyoto, complete genome4e-57230BLASTN svgBLASTP svg
NC_008593:84129184129186462123331Clostridium novyi NT, complete genome2e-50208BLASTN svgBLASTP svg
NC_013192:81585481585483809922246Leptotrichia buccalis DSM 1135, complete genome1e-35159BLASTN svgBLASTP svg
NC_008261:21172072117207214023523029Clostridium perfringens ATCC 13124, complete genome7e-25123BLASTN svgBLASTP svg
NC_008262:17959141795914181428418371Clostridium perfringens SM101, complete genome4e-20107BLASTN svgBLASTP svg
NC_015216:40565740565742827422618Methanobacterium sp. AL-21 chromosome, complete genome4e-1797.6BLASTN svgBLASTP svg
NC_014614:2434017*2434017245806724051Clostridium sticklandii, complete genome7e-1693.7BLASTN svgBLASTP svg
NC_013926:1205443*1205443122506719625Aciduliprofundum boonei T469 chromosome, complete genome7e-1693.7BLASTN svgBLASTP svg
NC_012883:1603744*1603744162651022767Thermococcus sibiricus MM 739, complete genome7e-1693.7BLASTN svgBLASTP svg
NC_003366:19018981901898192440722510Clostridium perfringens str. 13, complete genome3e-1591.7BLASTN svgBLASTP svg
NC_014122:39385639385641638122526Methanocaldococcus infernus ME chromosome, complete genome4e-1487.7BLASTN svgBLASTP svg
NC_015636:1477221*1477221150259925379Methanothermococcus okinawensis IH1 chromosome, complete genome3e-1281.8BLASTN svgBLASTP svg
NC_009975:1500978*1500978152309922122Methanococcus maripaludis C6, complete genome4e-1177.8BLASTN svgBLASTP svg
NC_015574:2057602*2057602208210924508Methanobacterium sp. SWAN-1 chromosome, complete genome2e-1075.8BLASTN svgBLASTP svg
NC_015847:1119666*1119666114458724922Methanococcus maripaludis XI chromosome, complete genome6e-1073.8BLASTN svgBLASTP svg
NC_005791:1028500*1028500105154523046Methanococcus maripaludis S2, complete genome6e-1073.8BLASTN svgBLASTP svg
NC_013407:1610221*1610221163174921529Methanocaldococcus vulcanius M7, complete genome1e-0869.9BLASTN svgBLASTP svg
NC_009135:494949*49494951848723539Methanococcus maripaludis C5, complete genome1e-0869.9BLASTN svgBLASTP svg
NC_015562:62700062700064529218293Methanotorris igneus Kol 5 chromosome, complete genome4e-0867.9BLASTN svgBLASTP svg
NC_014538:23965592396559242259926041Thermoanaerobacter sp. X513 chromosome, complete genome1e-0765.9BLASTN svgBLASTP svg
NC_007681:1300068*1300068132484524778Methanosphaera stadtmanae DSM 3091, complete genome1e-0765.9BLASTN svgBLASTP svg
NC_000909:201000*20100022113320134Methanocaldococcus jannaschii DSM 2661, complete genome1e-0765.9BLASTN svgBLASTP svg
NC_013741:1390823*1390823141480423982Archaeoglobus profundus DSM 5631, complete genome2e-0661.9BLASTN svgBLASTP svg
NC_014976:24200002420000244974729748Bacillus subtilis BSn5 chromosome, complete genome9e-0660BLASTN svgBLASTP svg
NC_014222:18687618687620859921724Methanococcus voltae A3 chromosome, complete genome9e-0660BLASTN svgBLASTP svg