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Query: NC_009698:3526359 Clostridium botulinum A str. Hall chromosome, complete genome

Start: 3526359, End: 3545519, Length: 19161

Host Lineage: Clostridium botulinum; Clostridium; Clostridiaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: Clostridium botulinum A strain Hall was received at Fort Detrick from Harvard University in 1947. The strain is presumably one from Dr. Ivan Hall's collection, but the exact strain number has been lost. This strain produces high amounts of type A toxin. Produces botulinum, one of the most potent toxins known. This genus comprises about 150 metabolically diverse species of anaerobes that are ubiquitous in virtually all anoxic habitats where organic compounds are present, including soils, aquatic sediments and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. This shape is attributed to the presence of endospores that develop under conditions unfavorable for vegetative growth and distend single cells terminally or sub-terminally. Spores germinate under conditions favorable for vegetative growth, such as anaerobiosis and presence of organic substrates. It is believed that present day Mollicutes (Eubacteria) have evolved regressively (i.e., by genome reduction) from gram-positive clostridia-like ancestors with a low GC content in DNA. This organism produces one of the most potent and deadly neurotoxins known, a botulinum toxin that prevents the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, thereby inhibiting muscle contraction and causing paralysis. In most cases the diseased person dies of asphyxiation as a result of paralysis of chest muscles involved in breathing. The spores are heat-resistant and can survive in inadequately heated, prepared, or processed foods. Spores germinate under favorable conditions (anaerobiosis and substrate-rich environment) and bacteria start propagating very rapidly, producing the toxin. Botulinum toxin, and C. botulinum cells, has been found in a wide variety of foods, including canned ones. Almost any food that has a high pH (above 4.6) can support growth of the bacterium.

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Islands with an asterisk (*) contain ribosomal proteins or RNA related elements and may indicate a False Positive Prediction!

Subject IslandStartEndLengthSubject Host DescriptionE-valueBit scoreVisual BLASTNVisual BLASTP
NC_012563:39218593921859394111319255Clostridium botulinum A2 str. Kyoto, complete genome05122BLASTN svgBLASTP svg
NC_010516:37243123724312374347419163Clostridium botulinum B1 str. Okra, complete genome05091BLASTN svgBLASTP svg
NC_010520:37538753753875377298819114Clostridium botulinum A3 str. Loch Maree, complete genome04861BLASTN svgBLASTP svg
NC_008261:29209992920999294008119083Clostridium perfringens ATCC 13124, complete genome7e-65256BLASTN svgBLASTP svg
NC_013316:120759*12075915711036352Clostridium difficile R20291, complete genome5e-38167BLASTN svgBLASTP svg
NC_009089:117980*11798016311645137Clostridium difficile 630, complete genome5e-38167BLASTN svgBLASTP svg
NC_014328:4387303*4387303445852771225Clostridium ljungdahlii ATCC 49587 chromosome, complete genome3e-36161BLASTN svgBLASTP svg
NC_010723:29895429895431770918756Clostridium botulinum E3 str. Alaska E43, complete genome3e-30141BLASTN svgBLASTP svg
NC_004557:26771552677155270388226728Clostridium tetani E88, complete genome5e-29137BLASTN svgBLASTP svg
NC_020291:23185323185325026518413Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum N1-4(HMT), complete genome2e-19105BLASTN svgBLASTP svg
NC_015958:2206032*2206032223846032429Thermoanaerobacter wiegelii Rt8.B1 chromosome, complete genome1e-1489.7BLASTN svgBLASTP svg
NC_014538:19425001942500196030417805Thermoanaerobacter sp. X513 chromosome, complete genome1e-1489.7BLASTN svgBLASTP svg
NC_003869:20990002099000211791718918Thermoanaerobacter tengcongensis MB4, complete genome6e-1073.8BLASTN svgBLASTP svg
NC_015555:38600038600040434618347Thermoanaerobacterium xylanolyticum LX-11 chromosome, complete9e-0969.9BLASTN svgBLASTP svg
NC_007930:18028118028119859918319Lactobacillus salivarius subsp. salivarius UCC118 plasmid pMP118,1e-0765.9BLASTN svgBLASTP svg
NC_011830:92342492342496578642363Desulfitobacterium hafniense DCB-2, complete genome6e-0763.9BLASTN svgBLASTP svg
NC_015499:35293435293437645123518Thermodesulfobium narugense DSM 14796 chromosome, complete genome2e-0661.9BLASTN svgBLASTP svg
NC_014614:13092031309203133281723615Clostridium sticklandii, complete genome9e-0660BLASTN svgBLASTP svg