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Query: NC_009089:3241918 Clostridium difficile 630, complete genome

Start: 3241918, End: 3266755, Length: 24838

Host Lineage: Peptoclostridium difficile; Peptoclostridium; Peptostreptococcaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: This strain is the epidemic type X variant that has been extensively studied in research and clinical laboratories. It produces both toxin A, and B. Causative agent of pseudomembranous colitis. This genus comprises about 150 metabolically diverse species of anaerobes that are ubiquitous in virtually all anoxic habitats where organic compounds are present, including soils, aquatic sediments and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. This shape is attributed to the presence of endospores that develop under conditions unfavorable for vegetative growth and distend single cells terminally or sub-terminally. Spores germinate under conditions favorable for vegetative growth, such as anaerobiosis and presence of organic substrates. It is believed that present day Mollicutes (Eubacteria) have evolved regressively (i.e., by genome reduction) from gram-positive clostridia-like ancestors with a low GC content in DNA. Some species are capable of producing organic solvents (acetone, ethanol, etc,), molecular hydrogen and other useful compounds. This species is now recognized as the major causative agent of pseudomembranous colitis (inflammation of the colon) and diarrhea that may occur following antibiotic treatment. This bacterium causes a wide spectrum of disease, ranging from mild, self-limiting diarrhea to serious diarrhea and, in some cases, complications such as pseudomembrane formation, toxic megacolon (dilation of the colon) and peritonitis, which often lead to lethality among patients. The bacteria produce high molecular mass polypeptide cytotoxins, A and B. Some strains produce only one of the toxins, others produce both. Toxin A causes inflammatory reaction involving hypersecretion of fluid and hemorrhagic necrosis through triggering cytokine release by neutrophils. Alteration of intestinal microbial balance with antibiotic therapy and increased exposure to the bacterium in a hospital setting allows C. difficile to colonize susceptible individuals. Moreover, it has been shown that subinhibitory concentrations of antibiotics promote increased toxin production by C. difficile.

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Islands with an asterisk (*) contain ribosomal proteins or RNA related elements and may indicate a False Positive Prediction!

Subject IslandStartEndLengthSubject Host DescriptionE-valueBit scoreVisual BLASTNVisual BLASTP
NC_011661:1411383*1411383143358622204Dictyoglomus turgidum DSM 6724, complete genome1e-1179.8BLASTN svgBLASTP svg
NC_013171:1336000*1336000135896722968Anaerococcus prevotii DSM 20548, complete genome5e-1177.8BLASTN svgBLASTP svg
NC_011565:469962*46996249376323802Candidatus Azobacteroides pseudotrichonymphae genomovar. CFP2,5e-1177.8BLASTN svgBLASTP svg
NC_015949:1957185*1957185197800220818Caldicellulosiruptor lactoaceticus 6A chromosome, complete genome2e-1075.8BLASTN svgBLASTP svg
NC_014721:508000*50800053060122602Caldicellulosiruptor kristjanssonii 177R1B chromosome, complete2e-1075.8BLASTN svgBLASTP svg
NC_014410:2149886*2149886217220922324Thermoanaerobacterium thermosaccharolyticum DSM 571 chromosome,3e-0971.9BLASTN svgBLASTP svg
NC_012039:480625*48062550506324439Campylobacter lari RM2100, complete genome1e-0869.9BLASTN svgBLASTP svg
NC_014150:1006000*1006000102850522506Brachyspira murdochii DSM 12563 chromosome, complete genome1e-0869.9BLASTN svgBLASTP svg
NC_014614:2434017*2434017245806724051Clostridium sticklandii, complete genome1e-0869.9BLASTN svgBLASTP svg
NC_015722:209722*20972223234422623Candidatus Midichloria mitochondrii IricVA chromosome, complete5e-0867.9BLASTN svgBLASTP svg
NC_010001:312500*31250033209919600Clostridium phytofermentans ISDg, complete genome2e-0765.9BLASTN svgBLASTP svg
NC_009437:1481064*1481064150445323390Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus DSM 8903, complete genome2e-0765.9BLASTN svgBLASTP svg
NC_019970:2190695*2190695221115020456Thermoanaerobacterium thermosaccharolyticum M0795, complete genome7e-0763.9BLASTN svgBLASTP svg