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Query: NC_009089:4177117:4199134 Clostridium difficile 630, complete genome

Start: 4199134, End: 4199721, Length: 588

Host Lineage: Peptoclostridium difficile; Peptoclostridium; Peptostreptococcaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: This strain is the epidemic type X variant that has been extensively studied in research and clinical laboratories. It produces both toxin A, and B. Causative agent of pseudomembranous colitis. This genus comprises about 150 metabolically diverse species of anaerobes that are ubiquitous in virtually all anoxic habitats where organic compounds are present, including soils, aquatic sediments and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. This shape is attributed to the presence of endospores that develop under conditions unfavorable for vegetative growth and distend single cells terminally or sub-terminally. Spores germinate under conditions favorable for vegetative growth, such as anaerobiosis and presence of organic substrates. It is believed that present day Mollicutes (Eubacteria) have evolved regressively (i.e., by genome reduction) from gram-positive clostridia-like ancestors with a low GC content in DNA. Some species are capable of producing organic solvents (acetone, ethanol, etc,), molecular hydrogen and other useful compounds. This species is now recognized as the major causative agent of pseudomembranous colitis (inflammation of the colon) and diarrhea that may occur following antibiotic treatment. This bacterium causes a wide spectrum of disease, ranging from mild, self-limiting diarrhea to serious diarrhea and, in some cases, complications such as pseudomembrane formation, toxic megacolon (dilation of the colon) and peritonitis, which often lead to lethality among patients. The bacteria produce high molecular mass polypeptide cytotoxins, A and B. Some strains produce only one of the toxins, others produce both. Toxin A causes inflammatory reaction involving hypersecretion of fluid and hemorrhagic necrosis through triggering cytokine release by neutrophils. Alteration of intestinal microbial balance with antibiotic therapy and increased exposure to the bacterium in a hospital setting allows C. difficile to colonize susceptible individuals. Moreover, it has been shown that subinhibitory concentrations of antibiotics promote increased toxin production by C. difficile.

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SubjectStartEndLengthSubject Host DescriptionCDS descriptionE-valueBit score
NC_017179:3984000:400468940046894005324636Clostridium difficile BI1, complete genomehypothetical protein9e-111399
NC_013315:3978495:399666939966693997304636Clostridium difficile CD196 chromosome, complete genomehypothetical protein9e-111399
NC_007907:3872805:387588538758853876520636Desulfitobacterium hafniense Y51, complete genomehypothetical protein4e-40164
NC_016584:85543:102038102038102631594Desulfosporosinus orientis DSM 765 chromosome, complete genomemetal-binding protein1e-32139
NC_013156:633475:652792652792653361570Methanocaldococcus fervens AG86, complete genomeProtein of unknown function DUF18479e-37152
NC_000909:404961:406279406279406860582Methanocaldococcus jannaschii DSM 2661, complete genomehypothetical protein4e-39160
NC_013887:1668913:166990216699021670483582Methanocaldococcus sp. FS406-22 chromosome, complete genomeProtein of unknown function DUF18475e-38157
NC_009135:620312:631416631416632045630Methanococcus maripaludis C5, complete genomehypothetical protein1e-58226
NC_009975:1682000:169635916963591696988630Methanococcus maripaludis C6, complete genomeProtein of unknown function DUF18472e-58224
NC_005791:837505:842609842609843238630Methanococcus maripaludis S2, complete genomehypothetical protein3e-59228
NC_015847:909938:915014915014915643630Methanococcus maripaludis XI chromosome, complete genomehypothetical protein3e-59227
NC_015562:899030:920971920971921546576Methanotorris igneus Kol 5 chromosome, complete genomehypothetical protein7e-40163
NC_007498:3540945:355720635572063557883678Pelobacter carbinolicus DSM 2380, complete genomeconserved uncharacterized metal-binding protein1e-47189
NC_017078:179848:201910201910202515606Selenomonas ruminantium subsp. lactilytica TAM6421 plasmid pSRC1,hypothetical protein3e-33141