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Query: NC_009089:1093832:1111060 Clostridium difficile 630, complete genome

Start: 1111060, End: 1111638, Length: 579

Host Lineage: Peptoclostridium difficile; Peptoclostridium; Peptostreptococcaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: This strain is the epidemic type X variant that has been extensively studied in research and clinical laboratories. It produces both toxin A, and B. Causative agent of pseudomembranous colitis. This genus comprises about 150 metabolically diverse species of anaerobes that are ubiquitous in virtually all anoxic habitats where organic compounds are present, including soils, aquatic sediments and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. This shape is attributed to the presence of endospores that develop under conditions unfavorable for vegetative growth and distend single cells terminally or sub-terminally. Spores germinate under conditions favorable for vegetative growth, such as anaerobiosis and presence of organic substrates. It is believed that present day Mollicutes (Eubacteria) have evolved regressively (i.e., by genome reduction) from gram-positive clostridia-like ancestors with a low GC content in DNA. Some species are capable of producing organic solvents (acetone, ethanol, etc,), molecular hydrogen and other useful compounds. This species is now recognized as the major causative agent of pseudomembranous colitis (inflammation of the colon) and diarrhea that may occur following antibiotic treatment. This bacterium causes a wide spectrum of disease, ranging from mild, self-limiting diarrhea to serious diarrhea and, in some cases, complications such as pseudomembrane formation, toxic megacolon (dilation of the colon) and peritonitis, which often lead to lethality among patients. The bacteria produce high molecular mass polypeptide cytotoxins, A and B. Some strains produce only one of the toxins, others produce both. Toxin A causes inflammatory reaction involving hypersecretion of fluid and hemorrhagic necrosis through triggering cytokine release by neutrophils. Alteration of intestinal microbial balance with antibiotic therapy and increased exposure to the bacterium in a hospital setting allows C. difficile to colonize susceptible individuals. Moreover, it has been shown that subinhibitory concentrations of antibiotics promote increased toxin production by C. difficile.

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SubjectStartEndLengthSubject Host DescriptionCDS descriptionE-valueBit score
NC_015977:2874000:289550128955012896109609Roseburia hominis A2-183 chromosome, complete genomehypothetical protein4e-26117
NC_019842:1203291:121449712144971215120624Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum AS43.3 chromosome,hypothetical protein3e-25114
NC_006086:1329915:133302213330221333615594Streptococcus pyogenes MGAS10394, complete genomeunknown phage protein3e-25114
NC_003485:1450045:145340514534051453965561Streptococcus pyogenes MGAS8232, complete genomehypothetical protein4e-25114
NC_013893:2310495:231221423122142312810597Staphylococcus lugdunensis HKU09-01 chromosome, complete genomehypothetical protein1e-23109
NC_013192:1033177:104979510497951050376582Leptotrichia buccalis DSM 1135, complete genomeunknown phage protein3e-1891.7
NC_013192:1033177:105108610510861051655570Leptotrichia buccalis DSM 1135, complete genomeunknown phage protein3e-1891.7
NC_015152:307500:324889324889325455567Spirochaeta sp. Buddy chromosome, complete genomehypothetical protein1e-1479.3
NC_006512:696000:707089707089707601513Idiomarina loihiensis L2TR, complete genomeAcetyltransferase, GNAT family6e-1373.9
NC_015276:565701:580031580031580564534Marinomonas mediterranea MMB-1 chromosome, complete genome1e-1169.7